Leslie 'Red' Parkhurst


Date Location Driver Driver Country Vehicle Power Speed over
1 Km
Speed over
1 Mile
15 Feb 1920 Ormond Beach, USA Leslie 'Red' Parkhurst USA Harley-Davidson IC 103.18 103.756  

Red Parkhurst was a leading racer of the 1910s and 1920s. He holds the distinction of being the first factory racer for Harley-Davidson. Parkhurst won a number of the top national races of his era and set a slew of speed records as a member of Harley-Davidson’s powerful factory racing team from 1914 to 1920. He rode briefly for Excelsior in 1921 and retired from full-time racing after the 1922 season, although he raced in select events through 1924.

Parkhurst was born in Rapid City, South Dakota, in 1895. He moved with his family to Denver as a child. His father was a railroad man and later owned a small brewery. It was not uncommon for youngsters to go to work in that era, and such was the case with Parkhurst. One of his first jobs was as a gopher for a painting company. He was often given the task of driving the company truck, full of painting supplies, to job sites around Denver. He didn’t last long on that job due to his propensity for speeding.

He later took a job at an Excelsior motorcycle dealership, learning to be a mechanic. Parkhurst pursued his love for speed and began racing motorcycles (after lying about his age) as an amateur at the age of 13. Riding his own Excelsiors, he established himself as one of the top Rocky Mountain region riders and primarily raced on the Tuilleries Motordrome board track in Denver.

By the time he was 16, Parkhurst was doing well enough on the boards that he began racing at other motordromes across the Midwest. In 1914, Harley-Davidson, which up to that point had largely ignored national competition, was making plans to form a racing team. As it turned out, Parkhurst was in the right place at the right time. He had performed well at Milwaukee’s new motordrome and Harley-Davidson’s racing manager, Bill Ottaway, asked the 18-year-old rider to join the company’s new racing team. Parkhurst eagerly accepted, moved to Milwaukee and became the very first member of the Harley-Davidson team.

With Parkhurst riding, Harley-Davidson tested its new racer at low-key regional races early in 1914 in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Parkhurst won most of these regional events against non-national competition. Testing continued through the 1914 season and the team entered the prestigious Dodge City 300 to assess the reliability of its machines in real racing conditions.

In 1915, Harley-Davidson’s racing team was ready and launched a serious assault on the big national events. Parkhurst’s teammate, Otto Walker, was the star of the year, winning the big events at Venice, California (where Parkhurst was second) and Dodge City. But later in the season, Parkhurst started making his mark, winning several events including the big 100-mile national on the dirt track in Saratoga, New York.

A lavish new two-mile motordrome had been built in the Sheepshead Bay region of Brooklyn, New York. The FAM hosted a national championship event at Sheepshead Bay in 1916 on the same date as the Dodge City Classic. Harley-Davidson decided to send board-track expert Parkhurst to New York instead of Dodge City. Parkhurst easily won the 100-mile FAM national championship in front of the massive grandstands that were packed with 18,000 fans – perhaps the largest crowd to see a motorcycle race up to that point.

In magazine articles, Parkhurst was often noted as always having a big smile and being one of the crowd favorites. He was said to shine on rough tracks. At 6' 4" tall, topped by a thick head of red hair (thus, the nickname Red), he cut a rather imposing image when standing next to the mainly diminutive community of motorcycle racers. Harley-Davidson used images of a smiling Parkhurst in countless race ads during the mid-to-late 1910s. He became a true sports celebrity. One of Parkhurst’s good friends and biggest fans was fellow Coloradoan Jack Dempsey, the world’s heavyweight boxing champion.

During World War I, Parkhurst stayed in Milwaukee and worked as a truck mechanic.

After the war Parkhurst was asked to rejoin Harley-Davidson’s racing team. One of the first big nationals after the war was the 200-miler held in June of 1919 at Ascot Park in Los Angeles. Parkhurst made a solid return to the track with a second-place finish behind teammate Ralph Hepburn.

In September of that year, Parkhurst earned his biggest victory in the 200-mile road race held in Marion, Indiana. With the Dodge City race not held in 1919, the Marion race (now run under the auspices of the newly formed Motorcycle and Allied Trades Association – M&ATA - taking over from the defunct FAM) became the biggest race of the year, with 18 factory riders from Harley-Davidson, Indian and Excelsior. Parkhurst took over the lead of the race from teammate Otto Walker just past the halfway point. Indian’s Teddy Carroll threatened his lead late in the event, but Carroll’s bike broke a valve with just two laps to go and Parkhurst went on to victory. Hepburn and Walker took second and third to make it a clean sweep for Harley-Davidson.

In February of 1920, Harley-Davidson went to Daytona Beach and Parkhurst set a number of short-lived speed records. In June of that year, Harley-Davidson rented the Sheepshead Bay track (considered the fastest board track in the country) to attempt a 24-hour solo record. Parkhurst set a new distance record for 24 hours, covering 1,452.75 miles despite having to wait out two hours of hard rain, then riding on a very slick track as the boards dried out. Exhausted by the solo run, Parkhurst broke the existing mileage record with over an hour to go and could have pulled in, but bravely held on to complete 24 hours.

In 1921, Parkhurst took a job offer from Excelsior and became a Midwest sales rep for the company and raced for them, much to the chagrin of Harley loyalists. He had a miserable season with Excelsior and returned to racing Harleys in 1922. By this time, Parkhurst had a family and was no longer racing full time. He continued to race sporadically through 1924, earning a couple of podium finishes on his adopted hometown track, the Milwaukee Mile, at M&ATA and AMA nationals held there in 1923 and '24.

After retiring from racing, Parkhurst continued working in sales for companies such as Firestone and Valvoline. He retired in the 1960s and died in 1972 while living in Washington State. He was 76.

© 2002, American Motorcyclist Association

In 1920, bike racing legend, Leslie "Red" Parkhurst, bust many speed records on a Harley Davidson racing bike. Every time Parkhurst won a race, he would carrying a pig on a victory lap and it was during this time the term "hog" became associated with Harley Davidson motorcycles.

Leslie "Red" Parkhurst after his victory at Marion in 1919

Phenomenal Speed Made in Daytona Beach Trials

February 1920

The roar of the Harley-Davidson motor rolling along the beach at Daytona, Fla., at over 100 miles an hour during the recent time trials, for a moment drowned the noise of the breakers the Atlantic, rolling up on the sand, not a stone's throw away.

Greater speed than has ever before been recorded in the annals of motorcycle history was attained by the Harley-Davidson team in the experimental trials that were held at Daytona Beach, Florida, during the week of February 15th.

On February 13, a pocket valve Harley-Davidson, ridden by Fred Ludlow, broke all world's professional motorcycle records by covering a kilometer in 21.75 seconds. This was the rate of 102.87 miles an hour, a performance that stamps the Harley-Davidson stock design as the most efficient in the world.

On February 15, an 8 Valve Harley-Davidson, ridden by Leslie Parkhurst, broke the four professional world's records for 1 kilometer, 1, 2 and 3 miles. The kilometer was run off at a rate of 103.39 m.p.h. , this breaking the record established by the pocket-valve Harley-Davidson on the 13th.

On February 16, in a terrific burse of speed, an 8 valve Harley-Davidson motorcycle, ridden by Leslie Parkhurst, smashed all world's motorcycle records in the professional unrestricted class by covering 1 kilometer in 19.98 seconds, which is at the rate of 111.98 m.p.h.
Three other world's records were broken by the same machine on that day, - the 1 mile in 32.45 sec. at a rate of 110.94 m.p.h., 2 miles at a rate of 109.39 m.p.h., an 5 miles at 107.86 m.p.h.

On February 17, four new world's sidecar records were established in the 61 cu. in. class when Leslie Parkhurst's 8 valve Harley-Davidson hurled a Harley-Davidson "Bullet" sidecar trough space at the rate of more than 84 miles an hour. In another try-out, the same day in the unrestricted class, Parkhurst covered 5 miles at the rate of 87.52 m.p.h. incidentally breaking the world's records for the unrestricted class for the 1 kilometer, 1 mile, 2 and 3 miles.

Fred Ludlow with his pocket-valve Harley-Davidson which made 102.87 miles per hour
111 Miles an Hour
'Red' Parkhurst piloting the famous 8-Valve 'Bullet' sidecar over the beach at 84 miles an hour with Ludlow as passenger.
The crowd rushing to meet Parkhurst and Ludlow (in the famous "Bullet" sidecar) after one of their record-breaking dashes.

The intricate looking, but absolutely accurate and never failing Electric timing device, the only instrument of its kind in existence.
Seconds are recorded to a hundredth part. A chronometer testet at several gouverment stations is the master time piece.

The famous Warner electrical timing instrument, which is the property of the American Automobil Association and which has been used to time all important world's automobil records for several years.

This instrument has been tested by the U.S. Bureau of Standard in Washington, D.C. and the U.S. Naval Time Station on the Pacific Coast.

In all these Florida Time Trials, the timing was under the direct observation of M. & A.T.A.
Refree R.A. Leavell, who has charge of the timing of practically all important records made by the American Automobil Association during the past few years.

Source: Harleyson's Antique American Motorcycle Club